Pauillac is the producer of eighteen of the sixty Medoc Crus from the 1855 classification including 3 of the five Premier Crus.
The Appellation d’Origine controlee of Pauillac was created by a decree on the 14 November 1936. This appellation covers red wines made from vines grown within the Pauillac commune and on certain sites in the communes of Cissac (1ha), Saint-Julien (16ha), Saint-Estephe (5ha), and Saint-Sauveur (34).
It was here in Pauillac during the 18th century, that sulphur was believed to have being first added to the wine in the barrel, in the Dutch fashion, to prevent a secondary fementation occurring in the barrel (Thouge sulphur has been used in Germany since 1487 the French did not officially allow its use up until this time).
As for the Medoc.
Bordering the Gironde, there are still marshy parts or pastures, over recent alluvial soils (Materials that has been transported by river deposited. Most alluvial soils contain silt, sand and gravel and are highly fertile.). The knolls consist of gravel, more or less sandy but well drained, ideal for winegrowing. The subsoil is often composed of iron-pen, generally fairly deep, giving good drainage and allowing the vines to root well. In general the abundance of gravelly soil aids the vine as it encourages good drainage and air circulation, and helps to concentrate the heat.
Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot.
Carmenere, Malbec, Petit Verdot.
VITICULTURE AND VINIFICATION
The density and the pruning systems are the same as for the Medoc.
Only red wines have the right to the the Pauillac appellation. Mechanical harvesting is common. Over time there has been an increase in the use of stainless steel.
The length of skin contact averages from 3-4 weeks depending on the vintage. Some vin de Presse is traditionally used by most chateaux in the final blend. And the wines are aged on average between 18 and 24 months.
SITES AND GRADES
Pauillac AOC Wines that qualify for this AOC can also use the AOC’s below.
Haut Medoc AOC
Or any of the Bordeaux regional appellations for red and white..
STYLE OF WINE
Mainly dry red wines which are considered to be the most powerful in terms of both bouquet, body and flavor of all Medocs. They are normally dark and virtually opaque with the very distinctive varietal characteristic of black currants on the nose. The best Crus combine the richness and tannins with a certain finesse and elegance that develops with aging however some lesser crus have a certain coarseness.